Getting to Equal, April 2 - 4, 2009, Fairmont Copley Plaza Hotel, Boston, Massachusetts

Course Date:
April 2 - 4, 2009 • Fairmont Copley Plaza, Boston, MA

Course Director:
Augustus A. White, III, MD, PhD

Associate Director:
Leonor Fernandez, MD

This interactive course provides clinicians, educators, and administrators with an in‑depth understanding of disparities in health care and with strategies to address these inequities. Faculty will highlight “best practices” for improved communication and more effective and equitable care.

The course examines the broader context of social and economic determinants of health and suggests individual and systems strategies to provide equitable care. While the main focus is on ethnic, racial, gender, and linguistic disparities in health care delivery, we also discuss issues important in the care of sexual minorities, people with disabilities, and others.


Participants will:

  1. Develop specific clinical skills and knowledge for improved care of diverse populations
  2. Gain knowledge and skills for making their own curriculum on disparities and cultural competence
  3. Explore specific administrative and organizational changes in health care delivery that decrease disparities.


  • Audience Response System in some lectures and panel discussions
  • Meet the Professor Lunch
  • Afternoon small‑group interactive workshops
  • Sessions on topics of particular interest to educators and administrators
  • A focus on case‑based presentations and practical suggestions for improved care


At the end of the course, participants will be able to:

  • Explain how and why unconscious bias occurs
  • Use skills that improve the care of patients with limited English proficiency
  • Incorporate the topic of health care disparities into clinical teaching rounds
  • Understand examples of successful health care interventions that have led to reduced disparities
  • Articulate the salient dilemmas in race and genetics‑based drug research
  • Describe and analyze the controversies in health care financing reform
  • Understand the historical, social and economic context of health care disparities
  • Develop improved skills for taking a sexual history
  • Understand how to create an "equity" report for hospitals or clinics

This program is supported in part by an unrestricted educational grant from the McKesson Foundation

Course Program

Strategies to Improve Care for all Patients

Fairmont Copley Plaza Hotel
Course number: #2924220

Health Care Disparities and Bias: Origins and Context
7:30 Welcome and Introduction
Augustus White, MD, PhD
7:50 KEYNOTE: Where Do We Stand? How Far Have We Come?
Richard Williams, MD
8:20 “Not Me”‑ Bias in Patient Care
John Ayanian, MD, Alex Green, MD
9:10 PANEL: Questions & Answers
With Preceding Speakers Leonor Fernandez, MD (Moderator)
9:30 Coffee Break
10:00 Health Care Disparities: Our Humanitarian Opportunity
Augustus White, MD, PhD
10:30 Violence Prevention: A Public Health Mandate
Deborah Prothrow‑Stith, MD, MPH
11:00 When Walking Fails:Perspectives on the Treatment of Patients with Disabilities
Lisa Iezzoni, MD
11:30 PANEL: Questions & Answers
With Preceding Speakers, William Taylor, MD (Moderator)
12:00 Special Lunch Program: Meet the Professors *
Lisa Iezzoni, MD, John Ayanian, MD, Richard Williams, MD, Deborah Prothrow‑Stith, MD, MPH
Room 1: Journey to Self‑Awareness: Meeting the Requirements for LCME Educational Directive 22
Dan Goodenough, PhD, Roxana Llerena‑Quinn, PhD, David Green, MD, Irving Allen, MD, Augustus White, MD, PhD
Room 2: Diabetes in the Latino Population: Genes, Environment, Culture, and More
Enrique Caballero, MD
Room 3: Respect: Building a Cultural Competence Framework Within Primary Care
Peter Gonzalez, MD
Room 4: Improving Quality of Care for Native Americans
Thomas Sequist, MD
2:50 Break
Room 1: Capturing and Controlling Conscious and Unconscious Bias
Alex Green, MD
Room 2: Treating Pain: Disparities in Analgesia
Nancy Oriol, MD
Room 3: Care of the Patient With HIV
Valerie Stone, MD, Bisola Ojikutu, MD, MPH
Room 4: Worksite Interventions to Reduce Cancer Disparities
Glorian Sorensen, MD
5:00 Adjourn
Health Policy, Markets, and Finance
7:30 PANEL DISCUSSION: Bidil and Beyond: Race‑Based Research and Marketing of Drugs
Charles Ogletree, Jr., JD, Cato Laurencin, MD, PhD, Alicia Fernandez, MD (Moderator)
8:40 Coffee break
9:00 Re‑examining Causality in RacialHealth Disparities
Jonathan Klick, JD
9:30 KEYNOTE: Developing Disparities Solutions: A View From the Field
Joseph Betancourt, MD, MPH
10:00 The Patient Medical Home: Will it Be the Answer to Eliminating Disparities?
Bruce Landon, MD
10:30 PANEL: Questions & Answers With Preceding Speakers
Booker Bush, MD (Moderator)
10:50 PANEL: Which Health Care Financing System is Best for Getting to Equal?
Louis Sullivan, MD, John Hammergren, MBA, Regina Herzlinger, DBA, Philip Caper, MD, Augustus White, MD, PhD (Moderator)
12:00 Lunch Break
1:00 KEYNOTE: How Doctors Think
Jerome Groopman, MD
Room 1: Community‑Oriented Primary Care: An Approach to African American Patients
Chidi Achebe, MD, MPH, MBA
Room 2: Understanding Dynamics of Class and Race in Doctor and Patient
Dan Goodenough, PhD, Roxana Llerena‑Quinn, PhD, David Green, MD, Irving Allen, MD, Augustus White, MD, PhD
2:50 Break
Room 1: Novel Approaches to Interpreter Services
Alicia Fernandez, MD
Room 2: Changing the Face of Medicine: A Look at Affirmative Action
Joan Reede, MD, MPH, MBA
Room 3: Ending Invisibility: Better Healthcare for the LGBT Communities
Harvey Makadon, MD
Room 4: Collective Wisdom on Cultural Competence: Sharing Your Own Perspectives in Cross Cultural Communication
Julie Crosson, MD
5:00 Adjourn
Specific Challenges, Specific Solutions: Provider‑ and Systems‑Based Change
7:30 Urban Asthma: Physical and Social Environmental Contributions
Rosalind Wright, MD
8:00 The Top 10 Tips: Stories from the National Center for Minority Health and Health Disparities
John Ruffin, PhD
8:30 "She Doesn't Take That Medicine": The Role of Language and Literacy
Leonor Fernandez, MD
9:00 PANEL: Questions & Answers With Preceding Speakers
Randall Morgan, Jr., MD, MBA (Moderator)
9:30 Coffee Break
10:00 Obesity, Bias, Stigma, and HealthDisparities
Christina Wee, MD
10:30 Teaching with Confidence About Health Care Disparities in the Clinical Setting
Alicia Fernandez, MD
11:00 An Illuminating Case‑Based Discussion About an Asian Man With Depression
Albert Yeung, MD
11:30 PANEL: Questions & Answers With Preceding Speakers
Daniel Federman, MD (Moderator)
11:50 *Multicultural Lunch
Room 1: Caring for Diverse Populations: Understanding Your Communities
Robert Like, MD
Room 2: Racial and Ethnic Disparities: A Background for Understanding the Need for Cultural Competence
Michael Byrd, MD, Linda Clayton, MD
Room 3: Integration of Cross Cultural Care into a Pre‑Clinical Pathophysiology Course Tutorial
Helen Shields, MD, FACP, Betty Crutcher, MPH, PhD
Room 4: Cultural Competence and the Pelvic Exam
Jennifer Potter, MD, Kim Ariyabuddhiphongs, MD
Global Perspectives & Concluding Thoughts
2:30 Cultural Competency Training: A Global Perspective
Robert Like, MD, MS
3:00 What We Have Learned and Some “Take Home” Comments
Augustus White, MD, PhD
3:25 Adjourn
* Complimentary Luncheons
Although complimentary, pre‑registration is required to attend.

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Harvard Medical School is accredited by the American Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Harvard Medical School designates this educational activity for a maximum of 23.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Risk Management: Designed to meet the criteria for 6.5 Risk Management credit in Massachusetts.

New Jersey: We have reviewed the New Jersey State requirements for culturally competent care education, and this course addresses those requirements. The curriculum has been reviewed by the New Jersey Board of Medical Examiners, and a formal response is pending.

AAFP: This activity has been reviewed and is acceptable for up to 22.5 Prescribed credit(s) by the American Academy of Family Physicians. When reporting CME credit, AAFP members should report total Prescribed and Elective credit earned for this activity.

The AAFP invites comments on any activity that has been approved for AAFP CME credit. Please forward your comments on the quality of this activity to

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Register by Mail  [ PDF ]

Physicians: $545 (USD)
NACHC/MLCHC Physicians: $495 (USD)
Residents/Allied Health Professionals: $450 (USD)
Other Professional $545 (USD)

Physicians Group Rate 3 or More $399 (USD)
Allied Health Group Rate 3 or More $399 (USD)

1-Day Physician Fee $210.00 (USD)
1-Day Allied Health Professionals $175.00 (USD)
1-Day Resident/Fellow Fee $150.00 (USD)

Last update 03.29.09

All foreign payments must be made by a draft on a United States Bank or by Visa or MasterCard.

If paying by CHECK, please make payable to Harvard Medical School and mail with completed registration form to Harvard Medical School-Department of Continuing Education, PO Box 825, Boston, MA 02117-0825.

If paying by credit card, please register online via the REGISTER NOW! link above.

Telephone or mail-in registration with credit card payment is not accepted.

Inquiries should be directed to the above address, made by phone: (617) 384-8600, Monday - Friday, 10 AM to 4 PM (EST), or by email:

Upon receipt of registration a confirmation will be mailed to the address listed on the form.

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A handling fee of $60 is deducted for cancellation. Refund requests must be received by mail one week prior to the course. No refunds will be made thereafter.


All sessions will be held at The Fairmont Copley Plaza Hotel, 138 St. James Avenue, Boston, MA 02116 (Telephone: 617-267-5300)


Hotel rooms in Boston and Cambridge are limited. You are urged to make your reservations early. A limited number of rooms have been reserved at The Fairmont Copley Plaza Hotel until March 11, 2009. Please specify that you are enrolled in this course to receive the reduced room rate of:

  • Moderate Rooms (One Queen Bed, Best for a Single Traveler) $269.00
  • Fairmont Rooms (One Queen Bed) $289.00
  • Deluxe Rooms (One King or Two Double Beds) $299.00

A map of Boston listing local hotels will be sent with your confirmation of enrollment. For additional housing assistance, call Boston Reservations at (617) 332-4199.

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Please do not make non-refundable airline reservations until you have been confirmed into your course. You can make your airline reservation by calling: the HMS Travel Desk toll free 1-877-4HARVMD (1-877-442-7863) Monday - Friday 9 AM - 8 PM (EST). From outside the U.S., Canada and Virgin Islands, please call (617) 559-3764.

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President and CEO, Harvard Street Health Center
Psychiatrist in Private Practice, Brookline, MA, Emeritus Psychiatrist, Harvard University Health Services
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Instructor in Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Professor of Medicine and Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Director, General Internal Medicine Fellowship, Brigham and Women’s Hospital
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Director, Disparities Solutions Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Associate in Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
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Director, Institute for Optimizing Health and Health Care Health Policy Researcher, Harvard School of Public Health
Director, Latino Diabetes Initiative, Joslin Diabetes Center, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Health Policy Consultant
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Associate Medical Director, MassHealth, Health Policy Researcher, Harvard School of Public Health
Director, Resident Communication Skills Seminar, Assistant Professor, Boston University School of Medicine
Carl W. Walter Distinguished Professor of Medicine and Medical Education, Harvard Medical School
Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine, University of California, San Francisco
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate Firm Chief, Department of Medicine; Division of General Medicine and Primary Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
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Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School
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Professor of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School
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Associate Director, The Disparities Solutions Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Senior Scientist, The Institute for Health Policy, Massachusetts General Hospital
Child and Adult Psychiatry, Martha Eliot Health Center/Children’s Hospital, Instructor in Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School
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Recanati Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Chief, Division of Experimental Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Chairman, President and CEO, McKesson Corporation
Nancy R. McPherson Professor of Business Administration, Harvard Business School
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Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Associate Director, Institute for Health Care Policy, Massachusetts General Hospital
Professor of Law, University of Pennsylvania
Associate Professor of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Associate Professor of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School
Vice‑President for Health Affairs, Dean, School of Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center
Professor and Director, Center for Healthy Families and Cultural Diversity, UMDNJ‑Robert Wood Johnson Medical School
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Cross Cultural Educator, Academy, Center for Teaching and Learning, Harvard Medical School, Instructor, Department of Psychiatry, Children's Hospital Boston
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Clinical Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Director of Professional Education and Training, The Fenway Institute, Fenway Health
Executive Director, W. Montague Cobb/NMA Health Institute, Past President, National Medical Association
Jesse Climenko Professor of Law, Founding and Executive Director, Charles Hamilton Houston Institute for Race and Justice, Harvard Law School
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Infectious Disease Faculty Member, Massachusetts General Hospital, Director of the Office of International Programs, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School
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Associate Professor of Anaesthesia, Dean of Students, Harvard Medical School
Director, Women's Health, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Associate Professor, Harvard Medical School
Consultant, Spencer Stuart, Former Associate Dean and Professor of Public Health Practice, Harvard School of Public Health
Dean for Diversity and Community Partnership, Harvard Medical School, Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Director, National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities
Assistant Professor of Medicine and Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School
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Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Associate Master, Oliver Wendell Holmes Society
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Director, Office of Faculty Development, Dana‑Farber Cancer Institute, Professor, Harvard School of Public Health
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Associate Chief, General Medicine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital
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President Emeritus, Morehouse School of Medicine, Former U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services
Associate Professor, Harvard Medical School, Program Director, Residency in Primary Care and Population Health, Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Co‑Director of Research, Division of General Medicine and Primary Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Ellen and Melvin Gordon Distinguished Professor of Medical Education, Harvard Medical School; Orthopaedic Surgeon‑in‑Chief Emeritus, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
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Clinical Professor of Medicine, UCLA School of Medicine, President/CEO, The Minority Health Institute, Inc.
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Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Assistant Professor, Harvard School of Public Health
Director of Primary Care Studies, Massachusetts General Hospital Depression Clinical and Research Program, Assistant Professor Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School

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Learn more about the Faculty

Augustus A. White, III, MD, PhD
Augustus A. White, III is a scientist who has distinguished himself on many fronts, most notably orthopaedics. After being at Yale University School of Medicine for nine years, where he was Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, he was the Orthopaedic Surgeon-in-Chief at Beth Israel Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts for thirteen years. Today he is the Ellen and Melvin Gordon Distinguished Professor of Medical Education and Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery at Harvard Medical School, and Professor Emeritus of the Harvard/MIT division of Health Sciences and Technology. He is a former Master of the Oliver Wendell Holmes Society at Harvard Medical School.

Dr. White is an internationally known, widely published authority on biomechanics of the spine, fracture healing, and surgical and nonsurgical care of the spine. He is nationally recognized for his work in medical education, diversity, and issues of health care disparities. He has written or collaborated on more than 200 scientific publications including chapters, books, and articles. Most noted among them is the highly regarded Clinical Biomechanics of the Spine. This book, the first of its kind, is designed to present scientific material about spinal mechanics in a manner directly applicable to the care of patients with spine problems. Dr. White has written a book for patients, Your Aching Back. He has recently co-authored a textbook, Biomechanics of The Musculoskeletal System.

He is member of the American Orthopaedic Association, the Orthopaedic Research Society, the Scoliosis Research Society, the International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine, and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and founding member and past president of the Cervical Spine Research Society.

Dr. White is past Chairman of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Diversity Committee. He is the Founding President of the J. Robert Gladden Orthopaedic Society, a multi-cultural organization dedicated to improving orthopaedic care for underserved groups. He was appointed by HHS Secretary Tommy Thompson to the National Advisory Council of the Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, where he served for five years.

Irving Allen, MD
Dr. Allen has been an instructor in the Harvard Medical School "Cultural Competence" course for seven years. He is an Emeritus Psychiatrist to the Harvard University Health Services and is in private practice in Brookline, Massachusetts. He was employed for many years at the Court Street Veterans' Administration Outpatient Clinic, and has been a consultant at Roxbury Childrens' Service, Putnam Children's Center, New England Home for Little Wanderers, and the Roxbury Court Clinic.

Issues addressed in articles and book chapters he has written, include stress experienced by young African-American school children during the Boston busing crisis of the 1970's; posttraumatic stress disorder in African-American Vietnam combat veterans; mental health challenges for African-American college students in predominantly white colleges, as well as the general issue of post-traumatic stress disorder in the African-American population. Dr. Allen has had a longstanding interest in understanding the dynamics and psychology of racial and other biases, both at the individual level and at the group and institutional level.

John Z. Ayanian, M.D., M.P.P.
Dr. John Ayanian is Professor of Medicine and Health Care Policy at Harvard Medical School and Professor of Health Policy and Management at the Harvard School of Public Health. At Brigham and Women's Hospital, he is a practicing general internist and Director of the General Internal Medicine Fellowship. He is also Director of the Harvard Medical School Fellowship in General Medicine and Primary Care. Dr. Ayanian received his Bachelor's degree summa cum laude in history and political science from Duke University, M.D. degree from the Harvard Medical School, and Master of Public Policy degree from the Harvard Kennedy School. He completed residency and fellowship training in general internal medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital.

Dr. Ayanian has published over 160 articles on access to care, quality of care, and disparities related to cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and renal disease. He is a Principal Investigator of the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance (CanCORS) Consortium, as well as NCI-funded interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening and a Commonwealth Fund study of uninsured adults gaining Medicare coverage. He leads the Outcomes Research Program of the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center, serves on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Clinical Oncology, and previously chaired the National Quality Forum's Colorectal Cancer Technical Panel. He currently serves on the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee on Health Insurance and its Consequences and previously served on the IOM Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance and the IOM Committee on Cancer Survivorship. Dr. Ayanian is a Fellow of the American College of Physicians and an elected member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation.

Booker T. Bush, MD
Booker Bush, MD is an Associate Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School and an Associate Physician on the Staff of the Beth Israel-Deaconess Medical Center. He Practices primary care Internal Medicine at Healthcare Associates, A Primary Care Practice based at the Medical Center. In the past he has served as the Director of the Ambulatory Practice for Internal Medicine Residents, and the Director of the Primary Care Residency Program. He is currently A Firm Chief on the Tullis Medical Firm,

Br. Bush is a graduate of Yale College and the Yale University School of Medicine where he also trained in Internal Medicine. He was a Kaiser Fellow in General Medicine at Harvard Medical School where he became involved in research and published a number of articles on the Identification and Management of Substance Abuse, Psychiatric Disorders in Primary Care Practice, and test ordering behaviors by Physicians. He is a frequent lecturer both In Boston and around the country on topics that include Communications with Patients, Issues in Chronic Narcotic Management, Care of Difficult Patients, and the Development of Cultural Competency Skills in patient Care.

Philip Caper, MD
Philip Caper, M.D. was trained in Internal Medicine on the Harvard Medical Unit at Boston City Hospital, where he was president of the House Officers Association and one of the organizers of the 1967 "heal-in". His was a fellow at the Harvard Center for Community Health from 1969-71.

From 1971 to 1976, he was a professional staff member on the United States Senate Labor and Human Resources Subcommittee on Health. From 1977 to 1984 Dr. Caper was a member of the federal government's top health care advisory panel, the National Council on Health Planning and Development, chairing it from 1980 to 1984.

He has held professorships in Medicine and Community Medicine at Dartmouth and the University of Massachusetts and has been an Adjunct Lecturer in Health Policy and Management at the Harvard School of Public Health and a Research Associate at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government.

Dr. Caper was also founder and chairman of The Codman Group (1986-2001), a health care software and consulting company dealing with health care costs and quality. He is a founding member of the National Academy of Social Insurance,

He has published numerous articles concerning health policy and management in journals including The New England Journal of Medicine, The Journal of the American Medical Association, Business and Health, The American Journal of Public Health, and Health Affairs. He served on the Health Affairs editorial advisory board from its founding to 2003.

Dr. Caper received his Bachelor's, Master's and M.D. degrees from the University of California, Los Angeles.

Betty Neal Crutcher, Ph.D.
The pattern began to emerge, even in early childhood, for Betty Neal Crutcher to be exposed to a variety of mentors - family members, friends at Tuskegee (Institute) University, professional colleagues.

Certainly by the time that she enrolled as a Sociology major at Tuskegee, she sensed the value of these mentors. Her first daily practice with incorporating cross-cultural mentoring into her own experiences was at the University of Michigan, where she completed her Masters of Public Health.

Dr. Crutcher's conceptual framework for cross-cultural mentoring, anchored in values, virtues and vision, began to crystallize as she worked in various higher education institutions in North Carolina, Texas and Ohio. These institutions included the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Guilford College, Cleveland Clinic, the University of Texas at Austin, Miami University, and currently at Wheaton College.

At a personal level, as the mother of Sara and as wife of Wheaton College President Ronald Crutcher, she has been able to watch and participate in the different roles and effects of mentors, both in her own and in the next generations.

Her dissertation, accepted for the Doctor of Philosophy program at Miami University (OH) in 2006, examined the perspectives of mentors, especially in cross-cultural experiences. Since that time, Dr. Crutcher has presented her work at the Mellon Mentoring Conference, the American Association of Museums, Institute on Mentoring, Harvard Graduate School of Education, the Council of Independent Colleges, the American Council on Education, Drexel University and Miami University (OH).

Her article, "Mentoring Across Cultures," was published in Academe (July/August, 2007), The Education Digest (December, 2007; Volume 73, No. 4) and Tomorrow's Professor's Blog (January, 2008).

In recognition of these contributions, the Wheaton College Board of Trustees recently has supported Dr. Crutcher's roles as Presidential Spouse and as Senior Mentoring Consultant.

Leonor Fernandez
Dr. Leonor Fernandez is a general internist at BIDMC in the Division of General Medicine and Primary care and Assistant Professor in Medicine at Harvard Medical School. She received her BA from Princeton University and her MD degree from Albert Einstein College of Medicine. She completed her Internal Medicine training at Boston City Hospital, where she co-founded the Latino Clinic. She worked several years as a clinician and co-director of medical residency teaching at East Boston Neighborhood Health Center, a large clinic that serves a very diverse community. As the Associate Firm Chief for Tullis Medical Firm at BIDMC she leads weekly rounds for medical residents and medical students.

Dr. Fernandez' current work focuses on reducing disparities in health outcomes. Her workshops are designed to teach communication skills and highlight institutional changes that help clinicians understand and transcend many common cultural, linguistic and social barriers in the doctor-patient relationship. She has particular expertise in the field of immigrant health. Along with Dr. White, she has created cultural competence curriculum for use in orthopedic residency programs. She is also the Medical Leader of Schwartz Rounds at BIDMC, a very well-attended inter-disciplinary forum on the human and ethical dilemmas in healthcare.

Peter Gonzalez, MD
Peter Gonzalez, MD has been a clinician educator in the Division of General Medicine and Primary Care at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in Boston since 2002.

He delivers primary care to an ethnically and culturally diverse patient panel including Latino patients with limited English proficiency. He developed an interest in cultural competence and cross-cultural issues in medicine as director of the Adult Latino Clinic at Boston Medical Center from 1997-2002. In 2001 he served as Co-director of the Cultural and Racial Diversity Task Force at Boston Medical Center. With this group he developed and implemented a cultural competence curriculum for Internal Medicine residents at that institution.

He is currently a member of the Culturally Competent Care Education Committee at Harvard Medical School working with medical students and has participated in a cultural competence training seminar for Internal Medicine residents in ambulatory practice at BIDMC.

Daniel Goodenough, Ph.D.
Daniel Goodenough, Ph.D. is Professor of Cell Biology at Harvard Medical School. He has a long-standing interest in medical education and was active with the group that planned the "New Pathway" curriculum for medical education at HMS, emphasizing problem-based learning and tutorial group dynamics as a fundamental component of the educational structure.

Small group teaching, together with student advising and personal experiences, nurtured a keen interest in the development of self-identity awareness in students (and faculty). To address this educational need, Dr. Goodenough joined with colleagues to develop and teach an elective course that provided the opportunity for self-reflection and exploration of each individual's learning about power, bias and cultural values.

David W. Green, MD
David W. Green, MD is a child and adult psychiatrist on the staff of Martha Eliot Health Center (Childrens Hospital Boston) in Jamaica Plain, MA. He grew up in Caracas, Venezuela, and the majority of his clinical work is with Latino patients. Early in his career, he focused on work in the juvenile court system, frequently consulting on cases involving the parental rights of Latino families. Prior to his medical education, he graduated from Union Theological Seminary in New York, where he worked with Puerto Rican youth in East Harlem.

During a decade at Harvard Community Health Plan, he participated in staff trainings on the prevention of patient abuse.

Dr. Green's current clinical work and teaching has been focused on defining and implementing contextually relevant methods of diagnosis and treatment, in a population that is highly stressed as a result of poverty, racial and ethnic barriers, and multiple issues related to immigration and documentation. For the past two years, he has co-taught the course in Cross-Cultural Awareness to both faculty and students at Harvard Medical School.

Regina E. Herzlinger
Regina E. Herzlinger is the Nancy R. McPherson Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School. She was the first woman to be tenured and chaired at Harvard Business School and the first to serve on a number of corporate boards. She is widely recognized for her innovative research in health care, including her early predictions of the unraveling of managed care and the rise of consumer-driven health care and health care focused factories, two terms that she coined. Money has dubbed her the "Godmother" of consumer-driven health care.

All her health care books have been best sellers in their categories. Her newest book Who Killed Health Care? (NY: McGraw-Hill, 2007) was selected by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce as one of the ten books that change the debate in 2008. Noted Merrill Matthews; "There are two powerful, well-respected and highly accomplished women who are driving the health care reform debate in the United States. One is Senator Hillary Clinton (D-NY), former first lady, whose first attempt at dramatically reforming the U.S. health care system turned into a political disaster. The other is Harvard Business School economist Regina Herzlinger, one of the country's most knowledgeable and articulate experts on the U.S. health care system, who has been pointing the way toward a "consumer-driven" system for years."

Professor Herzlinger has served on the Scientific Advisory Group to the U.S. Secretary of the Air Force and as a board member of many private and publicly-traded firms, mostly in the consumer-driven health care space, often as chair of the Governance and Audit subcommittees.

Regina Herzlinger received her Bachelor's Degree from MIT and her Doctorate from the Harvard Business School.

She has been married to Dr. George Herzlinger, her MIT classmate, for 42 years. Both of their children graduated from Harvard College. Her daughter is a Fellow in Endocrinology; her son, an Infantry Captain in the U.S. Army who served two tours in Iraq, has safely returned to the U.S.

Robert C. Like, MD, MS
Robert C. Like, MD, MS is Professor and Director of the Center for Healthy Families and Cultural Diversity, Department of Family Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. Dr. Like received his MD degree from Harvard Medical School in 1979, and completed his residency and MS degree fellowship training in family medicine from Case Western Reserve University in 1984. He is a practicing family physician with a background in medical anthropology, and has carried out fieldwork in the Azores Islands, Portugal; Beersheva, Israel; Zuni, New Mexico; and the Kingdom of Tonga in Western Polynesia.

Dr. Like has served as co-chair of the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine's Group on Multicultural Health Care and Education, a member of the DHHS Office of Minority Health's CLAS Standards National Project Advisory Committee, and on numerous expert panels, committees, and task forces. He was the principal investigator on an Aetna Foundation-funded study entitled, "Assessing the Impact of Cultural Competency Training Using Participatory Quality Improvement Methods," and has consulted to the European Union's Migrant-Friendly Hospitals initiative.

Dr. Like is nationally known for his work in the area of cultural competency and health professions education. He has received a variety of awards including the 2004 Distinguished Service in the Health Field Award from the National Association of Medical Minority Educators, and is a 2004 and 2007 Pfizer/American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation Visiting Professor in Family Medicine. He is actively involved in research and continues to provide training and technical assistance relating to the delivery of patient-centered, culturally responsive care to diverse populations.

Roxana Llerena-Quinn, Ph.D.
Roxana Llerena-Quinn, Ph.D. is a Harvard Medical School instructor in the Department of Outpatient Psychiatry at Children's Hospital where she co-directs the Latino Program. Dr. Llerena-Quinn has worked extensively with underserved, urban communities in the Boston area. Her interests include: Latino and minority mental health with a special focus on child, adolescent, family and systems work; immigration, identity formation, trauma and the prevention of depression.

At Harvard Medical School (HMS), she is a Cross-Cultural educator in the Academy, Center for Teaching and Learning. There, she coordinates the work of the Cross-Cultural Care Committee, focusing on curriculum and faculty development. She has helped develop and facilitates a course on cultural self-awareness and cultural identity for faculty and medical students and she provides support to HMS faculty who wish to integrate these themes into their courses. At the Center of Multicultural Training in Psychology (CMTP), she is a regular guest faculty in the Family Therapy Seminar and works as a Primary Supervisor.

She has served on local and national panels addressing cross-cultural care. Recent local and international activities have focused in the adaptation of child depression prevention programs that have a family strength focus for Latino populations. Her passion is to continue mentoring youth and students, and to continue learning from the families and colleagues who so generously have allowed her into their lives.

Charles J. Ogletree, Jr., JD
Charles Ogletree, the Harvard Law School Jesse Climenko Professor of Law, and Founding and Executive Director of the Charles Hamilton Houston Institute for Race and Justice, is a prominent legal theorist who has made an international reputation by taking a hard look at complex issues of law and by working to secure the rights guaranteed by the Constitution for everyone equally under the law. The Charles Hamilton Houston Institute for Race and Justice (, named in honor of the visionary lawyer who spearheaded the litigation in Brown v. Board of Education, opened in September 2005, and focuses on a variety of issues relating to race and justice, and will sponsor research, hold conferences, and provide policy analysis.

Professor Ogletree's most recent book, edited with Professor Austin Sarat of Amherst College is From Lynch Mobs to the Killing State: Race and the Death Penalty in America, was published by New York University Press in May 2006. His historical memoir, All Deliberate Speed: Reflections on the First Half-Century of Brown v. Board of Education (, was published by W.W. Norton & Company in April 2004 and his forthcoming book When Law Fails: Making Sense of Miscarriages of Justice, co-edited with Austin Sarat, will be published by NYU Press in early January 2009.

Professor Ogletree is a native of Merced, California, where he attended public schools. Professor Ogletree earned an M.A. and B.A. (with distinction) in Political Science from Stanford University, where he was Phi Beta Kappa. He also holds a J.D. from Harvard Law School.

In 2008 Professor Ogletree was awarded the prestigious ABA Spirit of Excellence Award in recognition of his many contributions to the legal profession. Also in 2008, the National Law Journal named Professor Ogletree one of the 50 Most Influential Minority Lawyers in America. In 2006, Professor Ogletree was named by Ebony Magazine as one of the 100+ Most Influential Black Americans. He was presented with the Lifetime Achievement Award when he was inducted into the Hall of Fame for the National Black Law Students Association, where he served as National President from 1977-1978. Professor Ogletree also received the first ever Rosa Parks Civil Rights Award given by the City of Boston, the Hugo A. Bedau Award given by the Massachusetts Anti-Death Penalty Coalition, and Morehouse College's Gandhi, King, Ikeda Community Builders Prize. He has also received honorary doctorates from several universities and colleges including Cambridge College, Wilberforce University, the University of Miami, the New England School of Law, Lincoln College, Tougaloo College, and Amherst College.

Professor Ogletree has been married to his fellow Stanford graduate, Pamela Barnes, since 1975. They are the proud parents of two children, Charles Ogletree III and Rashida Ogletree. The Ogletrees live in Cambridge and are members of St. Paul African Methodist Episcopal Church.

Bisola Ojikutu MD MPH
Dr. Ojikutu has dedicated her career to rectifying disparities in health care access for HIV-infected patients both domestically and abroad. Domestically, as a faculty member in the Division of Infectious Diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital, her focus is on overcoming barriers in access to care faced by women of color and immigrants living with HIV. As an advocate for the health needs of populations living with HIV she has worked in consultation with the Massachusetts Department of Health and serves as a faculty advisor for the Women of Color Roundtable and Women Connecting Affecting Change. In addition, she is a board member of the AIDS Action Committee of Massachusetts. Currently, she also serves as Director of the Office of International Programs within the Division of AIDS at Harvard Medical School. In this position she is leading initiatives to improve provision and systems of HIV care, increase care and treatment for women and children, train health care workers and integrate HIV management into primary health systems. Most recently, she serves as the founding director of the Umndeni "Family" Care Program, an initiative designed to decrease poverty and increase access to HIV testing, care and treatment for women and children living with HIV.

Dr. Ojikutu holds an MD from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, is an alumni of the Commonwealth Fund/Harvard University Fellowship in Minority Health Policy and holds an MPH from the Harvard School of Public Health. She completed Internal Medicine residency at Cornell's New York Presbyterian Hospital and Infectious Disease fellowship at the Massachusetts General Hospital/Brigham and Women's Hospital Program. Dr. Ojikutu is board certified in Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases.

Lourdes Sanchez, MS
Lourdes Sanchez has been in the field of Medical Interpretation for over 16 years and the Vice-President of the International Medical Interpreters Association since 2007. She serves in the Advisory Board of many educational institutions that are promoting higher education on the field of medical interpreting. She is also part of the Board of Certification of Medical Interpreters that is working with the process of certifying professional medical interpreters. She is currently working as a Process Improvement Consultant with Boston Medical Center Interpreter Services Department where she is working with a variety of projects to identify areas of improvements that will result in cost efficiencies. She also works as a consultant with Parallax Consulting, a Healthcare IT software company, where she is developing a webase tracking system to enhance interpreting services process of data collection and reporting.

Prior to her work as a process improvement consultant she worked for the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation as the Director of Interpreting Standards and CLAS Best-Practices, while over there she periodically evaluated the provision of language services of 11 hospitals, 9 long-term-care and diagnostic facilities and provided recommendations for improvement. Also she analyzed utilization data to demonstrate need, cost and growth. Prior to this position she was at Massachusetts General Hospital where she worked for 14 years holding different positions at the Medical Interpreter Services Department. She led the department for 11 year. Ms. Sanchez is known for her work promoting quality interpreting at Mass General through a number of notable achievements: designing a comprehensive department website to create awareness among internal and external clients about interpreter services instituting a Medical Interpreter career ladder for professional and leadership development, developing an assessment and validation process to ensure that Medical Interpreters meet the quality and qualifications required for the job, and designing and implementing a web-based scheduling, tracking and reporting system to create efficiency and expedite daily process.

She also held a position as a consultant for a 2 year European project led by the, Ludwig-Boltzmann Institute for the Sociology of Health and Medicine, a collaborating center for the World Health Organization (WHO) Centre for Health Promotion in Hospitals and Health Care she contributed to a multi-centre project to assist hospitals to provide culturally responsive health and health promotion services for migrant and ethnic minority groups. She worked with 13 hospitals across Europe to implement and evaluate specific interventions, addressing central aspects of providing culturally adequate services specifically language services in clinical communication. She holds a Masters Degree from Boston University in International Business and a Bachelors Degree from Regis College. She has also contributed to two publications - The Amsterdam Declaration - "Towards Migrant-Friendly Hospitals in an ethno-culturally diverse Europe" and "Lost in Translation: Integrating Medical Interpreters into the Multidisciplinary Team," The Oncologist.

Thomas D. Sequist, MD MPH
Thomas D. Sequist, MD MPH is an Assistant Professor of Medicine and Assistant Professor of Health Care Policy at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, and practices general internal medicine at Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates, a multispecialty physician group practice. He received his medical degree in 1999 from Harvard Medical School and completed a residency in internal medicine and primary care at Brigham and Women's Hospital in 2002. Following his clinical training, he completed the Harvard General Medicine fellowship, concurrently receiving a Masters in Public Health degree in 2004 from the Harvard School of Public Health.

Dr. Sequist maintains an active research agenda in quality improvement and racial disparities. His work in this area involves the use of health information technology, patient and provider education, disease management strategies, and performance reporting to improve patient care, with a focus on care for minority patients. He is a current Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Amos Medical Faculty Development Program Scholar, which provides support to conduct in-depth analyses of quality of care for Native Americans. He works closely with the Indian Health Service to study the quality of health care delivered within this organization, seeking to improve the health status of all Native Americans as well as expand our knowledge of the role that integrated health systems play in improving quality and reducing disparities. Dr. Sequist is also the principal investigator on grants from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation focused on evaluating quality improvement strategies in the ambulatory setting. He is recipient of the Society of General Internal Medicine Hamolsky Junior Faculty Research Award and the Association of American Medical Colleges Herbert W. Nickens Faculty Fellowship. Dr. Sequist is deputy editor for The Journal of General Internal Medicine, and a standing member of the Health Care Quality and Effectiveness study section within the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Helen M. Shields, MD, FACP, AGAF
Helen M. Shields, MD is Associate Professor of Medicine Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Associate Master of the Oliver Wendell Holmes Society, Harvard Medical School Director of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology for Second Year Harvard Medical Students Dr. Helen Shields' primary interests include an innovative faculty development program that uses Harvard Business School teaching strategies in problem- based learning tutorials and a faculty development program that trains tutors in cross cultural care. She is a member of the Cross Cultural Care Committee at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Shields presented her faculty development program at a Harvard Medical School Academy Center for Teaching and Learning Workshop in July, 2008 entitled �Two Models for Integrating Cross-Cultural Care into Pre-Clinical Science Courses.� In both 2007 and 2008, she presented her faculty development program as part of an invited workshop on Cross-Cultural Care at the American Association of Medical Colleges Annual Meeting. Dr. Shields is the Director of the Harvard Medical School Introduction to the Abdominal Exam exercise put on annually for the entire Second Year Class. She is also Chairman of the Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology Advisory Committee which is developing new methods for teaching the pathology laboratories during the pathophysiology course using video clips and multimedia presentations in order to increase the interactive nature of the laboratories. Dr. Shields has won multiple teaching awards including the Harvard Medical School Faculty Prize for Teaching in both 1999 and 2008, the S. Robert Stone Award for Excellence in Teaching and Clinical Medicine awarded by the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School in 2003 and Best Pre-Clinical Instructor Award at Graduation by both the graduating Class of 2004 and the Class of 2007.Her mentoring ability was recognized in 2007 with the Mentor Recognition Award for Medical School Mantoring from the American Medical Association�s Women Physician Congress in Honolulu, Hawaii, in November 2007. Dr. Shields is a Fellow of the American College of Physicians and the American Gastroenterological Association. She was the Co-Director of the American Gastroenterological Association�s Spring Postgraduate Course for 3000 physicians in San Diego, California in May 2008. Dr. Shields other interests include colon cancer screening and Barrett�s epithelium. She has chaired the Colorectal Cancer Advisory Committee since 2004 for Harvard University�s Risk Management Foundation. She is the Principal Investigator on a grant from the Harvard Risk Management Foundation entitled �Preventing Missed and Delayed Colon Cancer Diagnoses: Are Patients Receiving an Adequate Workup for Rectal Bleeding?� Dr. Shields and her colleagues have described a precursor to Barrett�s epithelium called multilayered epithelium which is a hybrid epithelium showing morphologic and cytokeratin characteristics of both squamous epithelium and columnar epithelium. Recently, she studied patients who had had exposure to both radiation and chemotherapy and noted an increased risk for both Barrett�s epithelium and multilayered epithelium in this population compared to a control group. Dr. Shields received her Bachelor of Arts degree in Biological Sciences from Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley, Massachusetts, her medical degree from Tufts University Medical School and did her internship and first year residency in medicine at Tufts-New England Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts. She was a senior resident, and chief resident in medicine at New York Hospital �Cornell Medical Center in New York City. Dr. Shields did her fellowship in Gastroenterology at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She was on the faculty in the division of Gastroenterology at Washington University and Barnes Hospital in St. Louis as an Instructor, and Assistant Professor of Medicine before coming to Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center where she is an Associate Professor of Medicine.

Valerie E. Stone, MD, MPH
Dr. Valerie Stone is an Associate Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School and an HIV/AIDS clinician at Massachusetts General Hospital, where she was Director of the Women's HIV/AIDS Program from 2002 to 2008. She devotes substantial time to HIV/AIDS patient care and research. Her HIV/AIDS research focuses on disparities in the care provided to minorities and women with HIV/AIDS, barriers to treatment for HIV, and adherence to antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS. Dr. Stone is the author of numerous scientific abstracts and publications regarding the care of persons with HIV/AIDS. Dr. Stone has more than 20 years of experience as an AIDS physician. She is an active clinician in both the MGH AIDS Program and MGH Internal Medicine Associates, and has joint appointments as faculty in the General Medicine and Infectious Diseases Units at MGH and Harvard Medical School. Her clinical expertise is in HIV/AIDS as well as adult primary care, with a special focus on HIV/AIDS among minorities and women.

Dr. Stone was a member of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Panel to Define Principles of Therapy of HIV Infection. She was also a member of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) Guidelines Panel on Primary Care of HIV/AIDS Patients, which published its Guidelines in September 2004 and will again in 2009. Dr. Stone served on the Board of Directors of the HIV Medicine Association 2001-04. She was a member of the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council from 2003-6 and served as the Chairperson in 2005-6. She is the first author of a new book which is in press on HIV/AIDS in U.S. Communities of Color which will be released in May 2009.

Dr. Stone received her medical degree from Yale University School of Medicine and completed her residency in internal medicine at Case Western Reserve University Hospitals in Cleveland, Ohio. She did a health services research fellowship at Harvard University / Brigham and Women's Hospital, and also completed a fellowship in infectious diseases at the Boston University School of Medicine hospitals.

Richard Allen Williams, M.D.
Dr. Richard Allen Williams, Founder of the Association of Black Cardiologists (1974), is a cum laude honors graduate of Harvard University and subsequently attended the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center where he received the M.D. degree. He performed an internship at the University of California San Francisco Medical Center, a residency in Internal Medicine at Los Angeles County-USC Medical Center, and a Cardiology fellowship at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School.

Dr. Williams has held positions as Assistant Medical Director at Martin Luther King, Jr. Hospital in Los Angeles, Chief of the Heart Station at the West Los Angeles VA Hospital, and Head of Cardiology at the same institution. At present he is Clinical Professor of Medicine at the UCLA School of Medicine, where he has been a faculty member for over 30 years.

He is also the Founder of the Minority Health Institute (1985), which focuses on educational programs to teach doctors about cultural competency, diversity, and healthcare disparities. He currently serves on the board of directors of the Institute for the Advancement of Multicultural and Minority Medicine, for which he is the Immediate Past Chair.

Among his many publications are the Textbook of Black Related Diseases, Humane Medicine, volumes 1 and 2, and The Athlete and Heart Disease. He has also published numerous scientific papers on cardiovascular disease. His newest books are entitled Eliminating Healthcare Disparities in America: Beyond the IOM Report, and The Heart of the Matter, both published in 2008.

Dr. Williams has received many honors including the Scroll of Merit from the National Medical Association, which is their highest award. He was given the Louis B. Russell, Jr. Memorial Award by the American Heart Association for outstanding service in the minority community. He also received the Lifetime Achievement Award from Harvard Medical School in 2004 in recognition of his successful efforts to increase diversity at that institution when he was on the faculty there, He is a frequent lecturer on healthcare disparities as well on clinical topics such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and heart failure.

Last update 03.19.09



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